Linking words/phrases like and,but,because,therefore,if and in order,help us link our ideas together.In traditional grammar,they were called conjunctions.Let us consider: and,also,too,as well,anyway,besides and furthermore.
And is used to join two things,actions or ideas in one sentence.We can use and to join phrases and clauses,as well as sentences.
- My uncle would never steal.He worked in a bath house and never took a bath for five years.
- Laugh and the world laughs with you;snore and you sleep alone. (Anthony Burgess)
Note: Do not start a sentence with and.
Also is used to link an idea,thing or action to another;this time from the previous sentence.It is placed directly before the verb.
- They also serve who stand and wait.(Milton)
Note: When we use the auxiliary verbs,can and have,the word also is placed after the auxiliary.
- We can also dream.We have also won laurels.
Note: With negative statements don’t use also Use either.
Too is used at the end of a sentence,when you are adding something to a list of things you have given in the previous sentence.
“Hold up your right arm,”the judge said.
“Can’t,your honour.Got a shot in it.”
“Then hold up your left arm.
“”Can’t.Got a shot in that too.
“”Then hold up your leg,”the judge said,”No man can be sworn into this court,sir,unless he holds up something.”
Note: Don’t use too with negative statements.Use either.
- He didn’t smoke or drink.He didn’t gamble either.
As well is used at the end of a sentence,when you’re adding something to a list of things that you have given in the previous sentence.
- Shakespeare has written 37 plays.He has composed a sonnet sequence as well.
Note: Don’t use as well with two negative statements.Use either.
- Priya is not coming to the party.Prem can’t come either.
Anyway/Besides is used at the beginning of a sentence,when you have given one reason for something and you want to add another.This is used in informal,especially spoken,contexts.
The following is supposedly a true story.Besides being true,the story is strange,weird,surprising and funny.
A Japanese rancher told reporters,in July,in Tokyo that he herds cattle by outfitting them with pocket pagers (beepers),which he calls from his portable phone.After a week of training,the cows associate beeping with eating and hustle up for grub.
Furthermore is used at the beginning of a sentence,to add a more important fact than the one you gave in the previous sentence.This is used in formal,written contexts.
This article has been written by Dr V Saraswathi for Times of India